United Kingdom: Policy Highlights and Opportunities
Each year, approximately 13.1 million tons of all food in the United Kingdom (UK) is either lost or wasted along the supply chain. At the same time that this safe surplus food goes to waste, 8% of the UK population was moderately or severely food insecure prior to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
Atlas Research: United Kingdom
United Kingdom research was published in April 2021 and was made possible with the advice and support of our on-site partners, including FareShare UK.
Food Safety for Donations
The UK has a detailed legal framework relevant to food safety, which provides ample guidance as to the food safety rules that apply to food donation and recovery.
EU law applies to food distribution, including donation, UK law applies to food recovery organizations, and the UK’s Food Safety Act 1990 applies to food donation of certain food products with damaged packaging and safe handling of food by food recovery organizations.
The UK has laws that standardize and clarify date labels on products, consistent with the Codex Alimentarius and the EU’s Food Information Regulation (FIR).
The FIR creates a dual date labeling scheme that distinguishes between safety-based and quality-based date label language. In accordance with this distinction, agencies direct that food may not be sold or donated after the “use by” date, but the law explicitly states that food products past their “best before” date may be sold or donated.
Government Grants & Incentives
While there is no UK-wide grant funding opportunity at the national level, the countries of the UK offer several different funding opportunities for governmental support for food recovery and donation.
UK-wide investments in a food recovery innovation fund that helps support on-farm harvest, packaging, storage, and distribution activities, for example, may help to expand the reach of existing food donation operations.
Policy Opportunities and Recommendations
The UK lacks comprehensive liability protections for food donors and food recovery organizations. To dispel concerns of food donors and food recovery organizations regarding potential liability for food donations,
the UK government should adopt legislation that establishes clear liability protection for donated food that is in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations and is donated to non-profit organizations in good faith.
In the UK, there are currently no tax incentives for donation of food. However, there also are no specific tax barriers to donation, as most food and drink is “zero rated”
for the Value Added Tax (VAT) meaning not VAT is charged on such foods. In order to offset the costs businesses may incur when donating food, the UK government should offer a tax incentive for food donations made to food recovery organizations.
Donor Requirements or Food Waste Penalties
Nationally, the UK does not have any uniform legislation that requires companies or consumers to donate excess food, nor is there a uniform ban on waste being sent to landfills.
This is likely due to the fact that waste policy, general, is fully devolved to regional governments, meaning that Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales manage their own waste policies.